Thursday, December 22, 2016

A Chattanooga Civil War Christmas

Thomas Hooke McCallie lived in Chattanooga during the Civil War and was the pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. In 1901, he wrote his memoirs. The following are excerpts from those memoirs taken from an article written by a descendent, T. Hooke McCallie. It was first published in Volume 2, Number 2 of the Chattanooga Regional Historical Journal and was reprinted in the Chattanooga Times-Free Press on Sunday, July 3, 2005, "McCallie forebear was witness to local devastation of Civil War." First, Rev. McCallie's views on secession...
My position at that time was about thus: I could not approve of secession. I did not believe that any state when aggrieved had the right to secede. I felt then that such a doctrine was utterly subversive of the very foundation of the government. But when seven states went out, I was of the opinion that there was no power in the constitution to bring them back by force. That force was the very essence of tyranny...

I was therefore opposed to coercion, but the coercive policy triumphed and Tennessee went out. My judgment was that the whole movement for a separate and independent government here in the South was a blunder and a mistake.

My sympathies were with the South. They were my people. This was my home. I loved my state and the southern people...

For this reason for the whole four years of dreadful strife, I was not an active participant in the struggle. I endeavored to persuade my relatives at the farm not to go into the strife on the Union side and here in Chattanooga my relatives not to go into the Southern army.
Most who lived in Hamilton County but outside of Chattanooga (where the McCallie farm was located) supported the Union. Most Chattanoogans were Southern sympathizers. Apparently, this geographical distinction carried over to the McCallie family.

McCallie describes spending Christmas of 1863 with his wife, Ellen Jarnigan McCallie. This was after the Battle of Missionary Ridge. The Confederate Army of Tennessee had been beaten and driven away. The Union Army was now in possession of the town...

I shall never forget the Christmas of 1863. Christmas Eve came. All without was winter. Horrid war had desolated everything. Our church was used for a hospital and no bell rang out on the air telling us of God, his house, his worship. There was no Sunday school. There was no day school. There was not a religious gathering anywhere in the City. The churches were closed, the pastors, all except myself, gone. The old citizens had gone South or had been sent North. Only a few families remained and they very infrequently saw each other. There were no stores open, no markets of any kind, no carriages on the streets, no civil officers. No taxes, nor tax-collectors, fortunately. Strangers filled our streets, our highways and our houses. The rattle of spurs of officers and the tramp of the soldiers was constantly falling on the ear.

It was winter in the home except for a few precious rays of sunshine. We had no milk, no butter, no cheese, scarcely any fruit, but baking bread such as we could make without milk or yeast, coffee, sugar and a barrel of pickles in the brine, but no vinegar to put them in.

The rays of sunshine were good health, powerful divine protection keeping us in peace where so many were being sent away from their homes, and a sense of God's forgiveness and gracious watch-care over us.

With the tragedies of war all around them and with supplies cut off for months, Christmas would have passed without notice, except for this one particular love:

But Christmas Eve night: The night was dark and stormy. The family had all retired to rest. I was sitting by the fire reading. My wife prepared for bed and then just before retiring she said, "I always have hung up my stocking Christmas Eve night ever since I was a child, and now I am not going to let poverty and the Yankees cheat me out of the joy of being a child again. I hang up my stocking by the fireplace." And so she retired.

"Too bad," I said to myself, "that the dear woman should be cheated out of the joy of waking on Christmas morning and finding that Santa Claus has been here."

So I waited and when quite satisfied that my wife was asleep, I rose up, put on my over-coat and sallied out into the winter night. I soon found a sutler's tent, where the light was burning. I bought some candy, a case of cove oysters, a can of tomatoes and some little things, hied away home, crept in quietly, put the purchased articles in the stocking and retired.

Well, the next morning was a joy to see. The woman was a child again. She could hardly believe her own eyes. She sat down on the floor, woman-like, took her stocking and rolled out its contents. She wondered where on earth these things could have come from. The next thing she said was, "Mr. McCallie, where and when did you get them?"

Saturday, October 8, 2016

The Confederate Army of Tennessee at Chickamauga

The following is an organizational table showing the composition of General Braxton Bragg's Confederate Army of Tennessee at the time of the Battle of Chickamauga.

The organizational chart for the Confederate Army of Tennessee at Chickamauga is more complicated than the chart in the preceding post for the Union Army of the Cumberland. As the Battle of Chickamauga progressed, Braxton Bragg received reinforcements from Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia - General James Longstreet's corps. Longstreet and his men arrived as the battle was going on; some did not arrive until the battle was over. After Longstreet arrived on the battlefield, late on the evening of September 19, 1863, Bragg reorganized his army into two wings, commanded by Longstreet and Corps Commander Leonidas Polk. This caused much reshuffling among the various units.

Unlike Union units which are numbered, Confederate units are named after commanders. Again, like the Army of the Cumberland organizational chart, this chart shows unit commanders and their successors as caused by the shuffling of the units or casualties. (k)=killed, (w)=wounded, (c)=captured


THE ARMY OF TENNESSEE -- General Braxton Bragg



RIGHT WING -- Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk


Cheatham's Division (Polk's Corps) -- Major General B. F. Cheatham

Jackson's Brigade -- Brigadier General John K. Jackson
Maney's Brigade -- Brigadier General George Maney
Smith's Brigade -- Brigadier General Preston Smith (k), Colonel A. J. Vaughn, Jr.
Wright's Brigade -- Brigadier General Marcus J. Wright
Strahl's Brigade -- Brigadier General O. F. Strahl


HILL'S CORPS -- Lieutenant General Daniel H. Hill

Cleburne's Division -- Major General P. R. Cleburne

Wood's Brigade -- Brigadier General S. A. M. Wood
Polk's Brigade -- Brigadier General Lucius E. Polk
Deshler's Brigade -- Brigadier General James Deshler (k), Colonel R. Q. Mills

Breckinridge's Division -- Major General J. C. Breckinridge

Helm's Brigade -- Brigadier General Benjamin H. Helm (k), Colonel J. H. Lewis
Adam's Brigade -- Brigadier General Daniel W. Adams (w & c), Colonel R. L. Gibson
Stovall's Brigade -- Brigadier General M. A. Stovall


RESERVE CORPS -- Major General W. H. T. Walker

Walker's Division -- Brigadier General States Rights Gist

Gist's Brigade -- Brigadier General S. R. Gist, Colonel P. H. Colquitt (k), Lieutenant Colonel L. Napier
Ector's Brigade -- Brigadier General M. D. Ector
Wilson's Brigade -- Colonel C. C. Wilson

Liddell's Division -- Brigadier General St. John Liddell

Liddell's Brigade -- Colonel Daniel C. Govan
Walthall's Brigade -- Brigadier General E. C. Walthall



LEFT WING -- Lieutenant General James Longstreet


Hindman's Division (Polk's Corps) -- Major General T. C. Hindman (w), Brigadier General J. Patton Anderson

Anderson's Brigade -- Brigadier General J. P. Anderson, Colonel J. H. Sharp
Deas's Brigade -- Brigadier General Z. C. Deas
Manigault's Brigade -- Brigadier General A. M. Manigault


BUCKNER'S CORPS -- Major General Simon B. Buckner


Stewart's Division -- Major General Alexander P. Stewart

Johnson's Brigade* -- Brigadier General Bushrod R. Johnson, Colonel J. S. Fulton
Brown's Brigade -- Brigadier General John C. Brown (w), Colonel Edmund C. Cook
Bate's Brigade -- Brigadier General William B. Bate
Clayton's Brigade -- Brigadier General H. D. Clayton (w)

* brigade attached to Johnson's Provisional Division


Preston's Division -- Brigadier General William Preston

Gracie's Brigade -- Brigadier General Archibald Gracie, Jr.
Trigg's Brigade -- Colonel Robert C. Trigg
Kelly's Brigade -- Colonel J. H. Kelly


Johnson's Division* -- Brigadier General Bushrod R. Johnson

*a provisional division embracing Johnson's Brigade and, part of the time, Robertson's and Anderson's Brigades, as well as Gregg's and McNair's. Attached to Longstreet's Corps under Hood on September 19.

Gregg's Brigade -- Brigadier General John Gregg (w), Colonel C. A. Sugg
McNair's Brigade -- Brigadier General E. McNair (w), Colonel D. Coleman


LONGSTREET'S CORPS* -- Major General John B. Hood (w)

* Corps's organization taken from return of Lee's army for 8/31/63. Pickett's Division was left in Virginia

McLaw's Division -- Brigadier General Joseph B. Kershaw, Major General Lafayette McLaws

Kershaw's Brigade -- Brigadier General Joseph B. Kershaw
Wofford's Brigade** -- Brigadier General W. T. Wofford
Humphreys's Brigade -- Brigadier General Benjamin G. Humphreys
Bryan's Brigade** -- Brigadier General Goode Bryan

** Longstreet's report indicates that these brigades did not arrive in time for the battle.

Hood's Division -- Major General John B. Hood (w), Brigadier General E. McIver Law

Jenkin's Brigade* -- Brigadier General Micah Jenkins
Law's Brigade -- Brigadier General E. McIver Law, Colonel James L. Sheffield
Robertson's Brigade** -- Brigadier General J. B. Robertson, Colonel Van H. Manning
Anderson's Brigade** -- Brigadier General George T. Anderson
Benning's Brigade -- Brigadier General Henry L. Benning

*did not arrive in time to take part in battle
** served part of the time in Johnson's Provisional Division



CAVALRY -- Major General Joseph Wheeler


Wharton's Division -- Brigadier General John A. Wharton

First Brigade -- Colonel C. C. Crews
Second Brigade -- Colonel Thomas Harrison

Martin's Division -- Brigadier General William T. Martin

First Brigade -- Colonel J. T. Morgan
Second Brigade -- Colonel A. A. Russell
Roddey's Brigade -- Brigadier General T. D. Roddey



FORREST'S CORPS -- Brigadier General Nathan B. Forrest


Armstrong's Division -- Brigadier General Frank C. Armstrong

Armstrong's Brigade -- Colonel J. T. Wheeler
Forrest's Brigade -- Colonel G. G. Dibrell

Pegram's Division -- Brigadier General John Pegram

Davidson's Brigade -- Brigadier General H. B. Davidson
Scott's Brigade -- Colonel J. S. Scott


same source as previous post, Downey's Storming of the Gateway

The Union Army of the Cumberland at Chickamauga

This is an organizational table of the Union Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Chickamauga.

THE ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND -- Major General William Starke Rosecrans


FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS -- Major General George H. Thomas

First Division -- Brigadier General Absalom Baird

First Brigade -- Colonel Benjamin F. Scribner
Second Brigade -- Brigadier General John C. Starkweather
Third Brigade -- Brigadier General John H. King

Second Division -- Major General James S. Negley

First Brigade -- Brigadier General John Beatty
Second Brigade -- Colonel Timothy R. Stanley (w), Colonel William L. Stoughton
Third Brigade -- Colonel William Sirwell

Third Division -- Brigadier General John M. Brannan

First Brigade -- Colonel John M. Connell
Second Brigade -- Colonel John T. Croxton (w), Colonel William H. Hays
Third Brigade -- Colonel Ferdinand Van Derveer

Fourth Division -- Major General Joseph J. Reynolds

First Brigade* -- Colonel John T. Wilder
Second Brigade -- Colonel Edward A. King (k), Colonel Milton S. Robinson
Third Brigade -- Brigadier General John B. Turchin

* brigade detached and serving as mounted infantry



TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS -- Major General Alexander McD. McCook

First Division -- Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis

Second Brigade -- Brigadier General William P. Carlin
Third Brigade -- Colonel Hans C. Heg (k), Colonel John A. Martin

Second Division -- Brigadier General Richard W. Johnson

First Brigade -- Brigadier General August Willich
Second Brigade -- Colonel Joseph B. Dodge
Third Brigade -- Colonel Philemon P. Baldwin (k), Colonel William W. Berry

Third Division -- Major General Philip H. Sheridan

First Brigade -- Brigadier General William H. Lytle (k), Colonel Silas Miller
Second Brigade -- Colonel Bernard Laiboldt
Third Brigade -- Colonel Luther P. Baldwin (w), Colonel Nathan H. Walworth



TWENTY-FIRST ARMY CORPS -- Major General Thomas L. Crittenden

First Division -- Brigadier General Thomas J. Wood

First Brigade -- Colonel George P. Buell
Third Brigade -- Colonel Charles G. Harker

Second Division -- Major General John M. Palmer

First Brigade -- Brigadier General Charles Cruft
Second Brigade -- Brigadier General William B. Hazen
Third Brigade -- Colonel William Grose

Third Division -- Brigadier General H. P. VanCleve

First Brigade -- Brigadier General Samuel Beatty
Second Brigade -- Colonel George F. Dick
Third Brigade -- Colonel Sidney M. Barnes



RESERVE CORPS -- Major General Gordon Granger

First Division -- Brigadier General James B. Steedman

First Brigade -- Brigadier General Walter C. Whitaker
Second Brigade -- Colonel John G. Mitchell

Second Division --

Second Brigade -- Colonel Daniel McCook



CAVALRY CORPS -- Brigadier General Robert B. Mitchell

First Division -- Colonel Edward M. McCook

First Brigade -- Colonel Archibald P. Campbell
Second Brigade -- Colonel Daniel M. Ray
Third Brigade -- Colonel Louis D. Watkins

Second Division -- Brigadier General George Crook

First Brigade -- Colonel Robert H. G. Minty
Second Brigade -- Colonel Eli Long



The Army of the Cumberland had an estimated 56,965 men at the Battle of Chickamauga. Thomas's 14th Corps had an estimated 20,000; McCook's 20th Corps, 11,000. Crittenden reported 12,052 men in his 21st Corps; Granger, 3913 in his Reserve Corps. The organizational chart shows officers killed (k) or wounded (w) in the battle. Union losses in the battle numbered 16,179 men. 1656 killed, 9749 wounded, 4774 missing.

source: Downey, Fairfax, Storming of the Gateway: Chattanooga 1863, David McKay Co., Inc., 1960

King's Pyramid


Posted by Picasa
At the Chickamauga Battlefield, pyramids of cannonballs mark where high-ranking officers died during the battle. This pyramid marks the spot where Col. Edward A. King (USA) died. The Kelly family's home is in the background.

Monday, July 18, 2016

The Parrott Rifle

This is another post in a series on Civil War weaponry.

In 1860 Robert P. Parrott developed the Parrott gun at his West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York.  The first models were 10-, 20- and 30-pounders, but by the end of the Civil War 300-pounders were in production.  They were made of cast and wrought iron and identifiable by the reinforcing band around their breeches.  The guns were used in all theaters of the war by both armies and navies; the Confederates produced their own versions.


a 10-pounder Parrott gun -- photo taken at the Chickamauga Battlefield Visitors' Center

Parrotts were extremely practical.  They could be operated and manufactured easily, but there were safety issues.  They tended to crack and burst.  In 1862, Henry J. Hunt, Chief of Artillery for the Army of the Potomac, tried to ban them from that army's inventory, and in 1889 the New York Times called on the Ordnance Bureau to ban them altogether after a series of mishaps at West Point.

Parrott's patent for his guns centered on the process of attaching the reinforcing band to the breech.  On most guns, the band was heated, slipped on the gun and allowed to cool.  Sometimes the band and tube were threaded and sometimes they were tapered, but the tube always remained stationary while the band was attached.  Parrott's method involved rotating the tube on rollers and spraying water inside to keep it cool while the hot band was slipped on.  Rotating the tube caused the band to clamp itself in place uniformly as it cooled.

Robert Parker Parrott was born in Lee, New Hampshire on October 5, 1804.  He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1824, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment.  He served as an assistant to the chief of the Ordnance Bureau and was assigned as an inspector of ordnance at the West Point Foundry in Cold Spring, New York.  He eventually resigned from the army to accept a position as superintendent of the foundry.  Parrott worked here for the next 41 years, eventually becoming lessee and operator of the foundry.

Before the war the foundry manufactured all types of cannon, but during the war years, the foundry's heyday, it focused on the manufacture of Parrott guns.  Parrott also developed the Parrott shell, the Parrott sight and the Parrott fuse.  After the war, Parrott retired from the foundry, but continued to experiment with artillery projectiles and fuses until his death in 1877.

The most famous Parrott gun was the Swamp Angel, which was used by the 11th Maine to bombard Charleston, South Carolina, in 1863.  The gun fired on the city 32 times before bursting.  The gun is now a monument in Cadwallader Park in Trenton, New Jersey.  Its fame comes from the Herman Melville poem "The Swamp Angel."


Posted by Picasa  A Parrott at Point Park on Lookout Mountain

Thursday, July 14, 2016

William Crutchfield

In accordance with my previous post, I thought a few words about the ardent Unionist William Crutchfield were in order...

William "Bill" Crutchfield was born in Greenville, Tennessee, on November 16, 1824. His family moved to Chattanooga in the late 1830s, but William left home in 1840, moving first to McMinnville, Tennessee, then in 1844 to Jacksonville, Alabama, where he established a grain farm and became a captain in the local militia.

William's father, Thomas, a successful brick contractor and land speculator died in 1850, and William moved back to Chattanooga to help his younger brother, Thomas Jr., manage the estate and the large hotel their father had built, the Crutchfield House. Crutchfield was elected alderman in 1851 and again in 1854. He was instrumental in establishing the town's police and fire departments.

Although the family owned slaves, many of whom worked as cooks, housekeepers and laundry workers in the hotel, William Crutchfield, a Whig, became more and more outspoken in his opposition to secession as the war approached. Crutchfield gained regional fame and notoriety for his confrontation with Jefferson Davis as chronicled in my previous post.

Crutchfield was hardly alone in his Unionist leanings. East Tennessee was a bastion of Unionist sentiment (more on that in a later post); while most Chattanoogans leaned toward secession, Hamilton County was overwhelmingly Unionist. The attitude in the very early days of the war, especially before Tennessee finally seceded in June 1861, seemed to be live and let live. That all changed in November.

In connection with a planned Union attack from Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee (which General William Tecumseh Sherman cancelled at the last minute), East Tennessee Unionists burned a series of railroad bridges throughout the region. Only five of nine targeted bridges were destroyed and they were quickly rebuilt, but the Confederate authorities came down hard on the region. Several bridge burners were executed, martial law was declared in some areas, and dozens of Unionists, including William Crutchfield, were arrested. The 7th Alabama Infantry Regiment, led by Colonel S. A. M. Wood, was sent to Chattanooga to keep the peace.

Crutchfield escaped his imprisonment and fled the area. Although he never joined the Union army he served as a scout and guide throughout the Chattanooga Campaign. In 1862, he led General James Negley to a spot opposite the town on the Tennessee River on Stringer's Ridge where he could shell the town. In 1863, he led Colonel John Wilder to the same spot. Wilder also shelled the town there, opening the Chattanooga Campaign. Crutchfield also fought at Chickamauga, assisted Generals William Hazen and John Turchin at the Battle of Brown's Ferry, and Ulysses S. Grant and George Thomas at the Battle of Missionary Ridge, and James Steedman in the post-campaign Union occupation of the town.

Phil Sheridan wrote in his memoirs that Crutchfield's "devotion to the Union cause knew no bounds." Oliver Perry Temple, in his Notable Men of Tennessee, described Crutchfield as "eccentric and peculiar beyond description. He was vehement in manner and impetuous in action. Yet, with all his violence of manner, his heart was as kind and true as ever beat in the human breast. And he was brave, too, to the verge of desperation."

In April 1864, Crutchfield was a part of Hamilton County's three-man delegation to the East Tennessee Convention in Knoxville. The convention was called to discuss Lincoln's ten percent plan in which states would be readmitted to the Union if ten percent of their prewar voting populations took the Oath of Allegiance and pledged to support emancipation. The convention quickly devolved into infighting and disbanded without accomplishing anything.

In October 1865, Crutchfield was elected alderman in Chattanooga's provisional civil government. In December, he was reelected for a full term.

In 1872, Crutchfield ran for the 3rd District seat in the U. S. House of Representatives. He edged his Democratic opponent, David Key, 10,041 to 8960. In Washington, he gained widespread attention for his eccentricities and manner of dress. A Washington Star correspondent noted that...
Since the days of Davy Crockett, Tennessee has always managed to have one mountaineer character in Congress, and Crutchfield, the latest, is said to resemble Crockett more in originality and style than any of the intervening line. He is a sunburnt, wiry little man, with foxy hair and whiskers, and though, by report, of considerable means, wears the cheapest of homespun suits, a good deal frayed at the edges, and with a pair of heavy, well-greased brogans that were the perpetual despair of the Pullman boot-blacks. He is not only a mighty hunter, like Crockett, but is moreover a shrewd business man.
That same correspondent, in the same article, used eye dialect to record a speech that Crutchfield gave, mocking his thick Southern accent.

While in Congress, Crutchfield managed to obtain a $600,000 appropriation to make improvements in the Tennessee River watercourse. He also obtained smaller amounts for the Little Tennessee and Hiwassee Rivers, but the money was never spent.

Crutchfield struck up a bit of controversy when he attached an amendment to a civil rights bill "that any white lady refusing the attention of a negro, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, shall be fined for each and every offense not less than five hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, and imprisoned not more than six months." He added, "Tack on this amendment and I'll vote for the whole thing."

Crutchfield said he was testing the devotion of Ben Butler and other Republicans to the social equality of the negro, and would have twenty of the choicest beaux from his plantation at each session of Congress so that those congressmen with daughters of marriageable age could take their pick.

He was bitterly denounced by his Republican colleagues, but he said he really didn't understand what they were so upset about. He was sure that Butler and his allies thought negroes were equal to themselves. "What's sauce for the goose isn't sauce for the gander. Civil rights are very fine for southern, but won't do for northern society."

His constituents back home in Tennessee were also outraged. He did not seek reelection in 1874.

After his time in Congress, he spent most of his time on his 500-acre fruit orchard south of Chattanooga in what is now Flintstone, Georgia. He died in Chattanooga on January 24, 1890 and is interred in Chattanooga's Citizens Cemetery. His epitaph reads, "The noblest work of God, an honest man."

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Jeff Davis Stops Over in Chattanooga

William Crutchfield
One of the more interesting bits of Chattanooga Civil War lore concerns the time when Jefferson Davis almost got into a duel with a Chattanooga Unionist...

It was January 22, 1861. The Deep South states had seceded and Jefferson Davis had just given an emotional farewell to his colleagues in the Senate. He was on his way home to Mississippi by train and stopped for the night in Chattanooga. He checked into the Crutchfield House, Chattanooga's finest hotel at the time, which was operated by Thomas and William Crutchfield.

A crowd gathered in the hotel dining room, imploring Davis to speak on the issues of the day. Davis obliged, giving, according to David Key, "a short talk, very moderate in character; it had nothing in it personal or offensive in expression or manner." The gist of the speech was that Mississippi should be allowed to leave the Union in peace and that Tennessee should vote for a secession convention in its upcoming election on February 9. Davis then left the room.

Accounts vary as to whether William Crutchfield, who was a very outspoken Unionist, was asked to speak to rebut Davis's arguments or just took it upon himself. Regardless, Crutchfield jumped up on a counter and delivered a scathing speech/tirade against Davis.

He began with "Behold, your future military despot..." and went downhill from there. Crutchfield accused Davis and his ilk of deserting their seats in Congress when they were in the majority and might have prevented any legislation that might have been hostile to the institutions of the South, said that instead of Davis poking his nose into the affairs of Tennessee his time might be better spent advising his fellow Mississippians to pay their state debts, and denounced all secessionists as traitors. Tennesseans, Crutchfield said, would not be "hood winked, bamboozled and dragged into your Southern, codfish, aristocratic, tory blooded, South Carolina mobocracy."

Davis, informed as to what was going on, reentered the room while Crutchfield was still speaking and began speaking the language of the code duello, asking if Crutchfield was responsible for the insults to his honor and demanding satisfaction. Davis's supporters, of which there were many in the room, had "pistols drawn and cocked for immediate use."

Most accounts of the proceedings say that violence was averted when Thomas Crutchfield dragged his brother down from the counter and out of the hotel. An short account in Louis J. DuPre's Fagots from the Camp Fire states that John W. Vaughn, the sheriff of Monroe County, Tennessee, who was traveling with Davis, "instantly, in defence of Davis' wounded honor, broke a black bottle, snatched from the shelf of the bar-room, over Crutchfield's head. The bleeding, stunned Crutchfield was borne helpless and senseless from the scene of conflict, shedding the first blood spilled in the war."